Posts Tagged ‘NS-2’

NS-2: WSN with obstacles

May 29, 2017

This is the tcl script for simulating a Wireless Sensor Network with some obstacles in the target area.


Energy Consumption Analysis of Modified AODV Routing Protocol under Random Waypoint and Reference Point Group Mobility Models

December 12, 2012

Abstract — A Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) is a non-infrastructure network that consists of a collection of nodes that can communicate each other independently. MANET is characterized by mobile with portable and limited power sources. A lot of protocols proposed to improve and optimize AODV performance. Our previous work, we have proposed a modified AODV routing protocol called RAODV+. RAODV+ combines two mechanism such as gateway mode and reverse route mechanism with the aim to improve the performance of the hybrid protocol. In this paper, we will discuss and analyze our modified AODV routing protocol in term of energy consumption analysis in mobility models, random waypoint and reference point group mobility. In this work, we use network simulator NS-2 to perform some scenarios of simulation. We used mobility models random waypoint and reference point group with various speed and number of source node to evaluate the energy consumed by each node. The simulation result shows that our modified protocol has lower energy consumption for random waypoint movement compare to the reference point group mobility model.

This research project is funded by The Directorate General of Higher Education Indonesia and Indonesian France Embassy.

You can download the paper here. This paper has already accepted and presented in International Conference on Advance Computer Science and Information Systems (ICACSIS) 2012.

Solved : Problem and Step-by-Step Installing NS-2.34 On Ubuntu 12.04 LTS

July 11, 2012

A few days ago, I installed my new PC in my lab with Ubuntu 12.04 LTS. I used to work with Ubuntu 10.04 LTS, but now I want to try Ubuntu 12.04. For my research purpose, I need to install Network Simulation NS-2 on it. As usual everything is not that easy while you’re going to work with Open Source or freeware…hehehe. That’s the challenges in Open Source. I like it.


How to Installing & Running LEACH on NS-2.34 (Step-by-Step)

May 16, 2012

This is my experience when I installed LEACH on NS-2.34 in my Ubuntu 10.04 LTS. After googling I found some useful links that discussing about how to running Leach on NS-2 as follows :

So here is my note when I installing and running Leach on NS-2.34.  (more…)

NS-2 : Tcl Script for Antnet Project

January 17, 2012

This is my tcl script for simulating Antnet routing protocol in wired network running on ns-2.34 using 14 nodes.


Energy Consumption Analysis of AODV-UI Hybrid Routing Protocol under Various Mobility Models

December 26, 2011

This is our first draft joint research paper that we submitted to Networking 2012, The International Conference on Networking. This joint research is involved 2 universities, Universitas Indonesia and Universite de Haute Alsace-France. We hope that this paper could represent both universities in the conference.

Abstract – Mobile ad hoc networks (Manets) are characterized by mobile with portable and limited power sources. For more than one decade, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol becomes attention and research focus on MANET widely. A lot of protocols proposed to improve and optimize AODV performance. Yet, many of those do not consider the needs of node accessing Internet via infrastructure network. In this paper, we proposed a optimize hybrid routing protocol based on AODV routing protocol, called AODV-UI. Our proposed protocol combines two mechanism such as gateway mode and reverse route mechanism with the aim to improve the performance of the hybrid protocol. We performed some evaluation of energy consumption calculation in our proposed hybrid protocol under various mobility models. We used random waypoint mobility models and reference point group mobility models with different speed and different number of source node to evaluate our protocol. The simulation result shows that our proposed protocol performance is lower in terms of energy consumption for random waypoint movement compare to the reference point group mobility model.

Keywords: Energy, gateway mode, mobility model, reverse route mechanism.

Network Simulator-2 (NS-2)

October 16, 2011

Network Simulator-2 (NS-2)

This page contains useful links to learn Network Simulator-2 (NS-2), Network Animator (NAM) and implementation of Ad hoc Network, AODV routing protocol, IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee LR-WPANs

NS2 :

  1. Install NS2.31 for ubuntu 7.10
  2. Tutorial for network simulator
  3. The network simulator
  4. NS manual
  5. NS by example
  6. NS2 – workshops, tutorials, presentations
  7. NS2 contributed code
  9. Workshop on NS-2 –
  10. NS2 Learning Guide
  11. How to interprete the NS2 tracefile
  12. NS Simulator course for beginners
  13. NS-2 Resource page
  14. Network analyzer for NS-2
  15. NS2.26 Source Original Documentation
  16. About Packet delays
  17. NS nam search :
  18. Pedro Vale FAQ NS2 Tips
  19. Zigbee/IEEE 802.15.4 Module for NS2 simulator :
  20. How to evaluate MPEG video transmission using the NS2 simulator?
  21. NS2.33 Documentation


  1. Network Animator

NS2 for IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee LR-WPANs :

  1. Simulation of IEEE 802.15./ZigBee With NS-2
  2. IEEE 802.15.4 Mac Implementation in NS-2
  3. Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs) NS-2 Platform
  4. Simulative Investigation of ZigBee/802.15.4



  1. The GNU AWK user’s guide
  3. Demo Script gnuplot –


  1. Tutorial OTCL :

Trace File :

  1. NS-2 Trace Formats :
  2. The example Awk file for 802.15.4 :
  3. The example Awk file for 802.11 (using cbr packet) :

Autonomic Computing

September 25, 2011

About a week ago, my friend who take a double degree at UHA-France discussed about how to optimizing and securing AODV routing protocol. His Prof asked him to try ‘autonomic computing’. It’s sound like new to my ears. So, I’m trying to find out what is all about automatic computing?. Here is some of information about it. Let’s take a look.

Autonomic Computing refers to the self-managing characteristics of distributed computing resources, adapting to unpredictable changes whilst hiding intrinsic complexity to operators and users. Started by IBM in 2001, this initiative’s ultimate aim is to develop computer systems capable of self-management, to overcome the rapidly growing complexity of computing systems management, and to reduce the barrier that complexity poses to further growth. An autonomic system makes decisions on its own, using high-level policies; it will constantly check and optimize its status and automatically adapt itself to changing conditions. As widely reported in literature, an autonomic computing framework might be seen composed by Autonomic Components (AC) interacting with each other [1]. An AC can be modeled in terms of two main control loops (local and global) with sensors (for self-monitoring), effectors (for self-adjustment), knowledge and planner/adapter for exploiting policies based on self- and environment awareness.

Driven by such vision, a variety of architectural frameworks based on “self-regulating” autonomic components has been recently proposed. A very similar trend has recently characterized significant research work in the area of multi-agent systems. However, most of these approaches are typically conceived with centralized or cluster-based server architectures in mind and mostly address the need of reducing management costs rather than the need of enabling complex software systems or providing innovative services.

Autonomy-oriented computation is a paradigm proposed by Jiming Liu in 2001 that uses artificial systems imitating social animals‘ collective behaviours to solve hard computational problems. For example, ant colony optimization could be studied in this paradigm.[1]

Our Draft Paper For International Journal Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE)

June 19, 2011

Performance Analysis of AODV-UI Routing Protocol With Energy Consumption Improvement Under Mobility Models in Hybrid Ad hoc Network


In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), routing protocol plays the most important role. In the last decade, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol becomes the attention of focussed research on MANETs world wide. A lot of protocols had been proposed to improve and optimize AODV routing protocol to achieve the best in quest of reliable protocol. In this paper, we present some improvement suggestion to AODV routing protocol. Our proposed protocol, called AODV-UI, improved AODV in gateway interconnection, reverse route and in energy consumption. We also measure performance indicators for some metrics, such as energy, routing overhead, end-to-end delay, and packet delivery ratio. We performed our simulation scenarios with three mobility model with different maximum speed and sources in hybrid ad hoc network. The result shows that AODV-UI is more stable when it is used in random way point mobility model in any speed and number of sources.

AODV; routing protocol; energy consumption; hybrid ad hoc network; MANETs

You can download this paper here.

BonnMotion : A mobility scenario generation and analysis tool

May 12, 2011

Copyright © 2002-2011 University of Bonn
This software is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License which is included in the archive.

BonnMotion is a Java software which creates and analyses mobility scenarios. It is developed within the Communication Systems group at the Institute of Computer Science 4 of the University of Bonn, Germany, where it serves as a tool for the investigation of mobile ad hoc network characteristics. The scenarios can also be exported for the network simulators ns-2, ns-3, GloMoSim/QualNet, COOJA, MiXiM, and ONE. Several mobility models are supported, namely

  • the Random Waypoint model,
  • the Random Walk model,
  • the Gauss-Markov model,
  • the Manhattan Grid model,
  • the Reference Point Group Mobility model,
  • the Disaster Area model,
  • the Random Street model, and
  • further more.

For further information consult the documentation. For questions and feedback concerning BonnMotion, please subscribe to the BonnMotion mailing list.

For download BonnMotion, please visit here.